Monday, October 22, 2012

Pengenalan CCTV (Closed-Circuit Television) - SIRI I

Closed-circuit television (CCTV) adalah kamera yang merakam imej video dan menghantar isyarat video komposit tempat-tempat tertentu. CCTV sering digunakan untuk tujuan pengawasan yang biasa terdapat di bank, lapangan terbang, bangunan-bangunan malah sekarang ini juga digunakan di rumah-rumah.

CCTV pertama telah dipasang oleh syarikat Jerman Siemens AG pada Test Stand VII di Peenemünde, Jerman pada tahun 1942, digunakan untuk memerhati perlancaran roket V-2. 

Kelengkapan Sistem CCTV

Kelengkapan utama dalam sistem pengoperasian CCTV adalah seperti berikut:

1)  Kamera

Kamera CCTV berfungsi sebagai alat perakam imej bergerak (video) dan menukarkannya kepada isyarat video komposit. Terdapat beberapa jenis kamera yang berbeza dari segi kualiti, penggunaan dan fungsi-fungsinya. Setiap kamera akan disambungkan ke Digital Video Recorder (DVR) secara langsung.

Terdapat pelbagai jenis kamera yang dijual dipasaran antaranya ialah :

i.  Dome Camera
ii. Waterproof Camera
iii.Infra Red Camera
iv. IP Camera
v. Stabdard Box Camera dan banyak lagi dipasaran

2) Digital Video Recorder (DVR)

DVR adalah sistem yang digunakan oleh CCTV untuk merakam video dalam bentuk digital. Bagi menyimpan data atau maklumat yang dirakam, DVR hendaklah disertakan dengan hard disk dengan kapasiti  yang besar sekurang-kurangnya 80Gb.

Pada masa kini terdapat pelbagai lagi jenis sistem CCTV hasil daripada penyelidikan dan kemajuan berterusan. Antaranya seperti kepelbagaian DVR yang boleh disambungkan ke talian internet, sistem pemantauan berkomputer dan yang menjadi perhatian masa kini adalah IP Camera

Sistem IP (Internet Protokol) Camera menghantar isyarat video dan audio melalui jaringan tanpa wayar dengan memakai protokol TCP/IP.Menarik sistem ini, ianya boleh dipantau di mana sahaja melalui internet. Ia juga tidak memerlukan DVR. Artikel berkenaan IP Camera akan diterangkan secara terperinci pada catatan akan datang.

DVR 4-Channel

3) Monitor

Monitor digunakan untuk memaparkan imej yang dirakam oleh kamera secara langsung. Paparan imej pada monitor bergantung kepada bilangan port yang digunakan pada DVR. Monitor komputer adalah yang paling popular digunakan kerana harganya yang murah dan mudah dipasang. 

Contoh penyambungan dalam sistem pemasangan CCTV adalah seperti gambarajah di bawah.


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